Singapore has one of the highest prevalence of diabetes amongst developed economies and unfortunately is on the increase. In 2018, our government had declared war on diabetes and at the same time we have over a million people suffering from diabetes. Diabetes affect the big and small vessels in the arterial circulation of our bodies. It also affects our nerves as well as immunity to infection.
Diabetic foot complications arise as a result of blocked blood vessels, changes in sensation to detect infection and injury, alteration of foot arch muscles support and reduced ability to fight off infections. It normally starts with a small blister in the foot, inadvertent trauma and with lack of attention over time and awareness, this will lead to deep tissue and bone infection. Because there may be also a lack of blood supply to the foot because diabetes is a major risk factor for peripheral artery disease (see PAD section), there is a lack of capacity for wound healing and to fight soft tissue infection The worst-case scenario will be some degree of amputation to control spreading infection or gangrene (soft tissue that has turned black).